Those of us writing for the web are forever being told to use lists. But they have their place in books, too. Web readers aren’t the only ones with a tendency to skim. Pretty much any time you have a bunch of concepts to discuss, a list is useful.
☐ Lists are numbered when sequence is important, and bulleted if not.
Here’s an example from a wellness article I wrote. It’s typical of what I see in manuscripts. Here’s how the first draft might have looked:
In her great TED talk, “Why Dieting Doesn’t Usually Work,” neuroscientist Sandra Aamodt showed that the four most important healthy habits don’t directly include weight: eating plenty of fruits and vegetables, exercising three times a week, not smoking, and drinking in moderation.
Now there are only four items in that series. It’s perfectly readable. There’s nothing wrong with it. But in the final version, I presented it this way: Continue reading
Sidebars are a good way to include information that complements your text but that doesn’t aid the flow of your main text. Sidebars are not a good place to house information you discovered that was interesting, but unrelated to the main text.
☐ Images, charts, and sidebars are relevant and support the content, rather than distracting from it.
Illustration by miamiamia • FreeImages
Like a novelist, a nonfiction writer can engage the reader’s imagination through the use of the five senses.
☐ Vivid details enhance the reader’s understanding and highlight key points.
We usually think of this kind of detail as being visual. The shape of someone’s eyeglasses, the colors of the flowers in a garden, or the clutter on a desk. Continue reading
Folks like Copyblogger who teach copywriting often emphasize the importance of story. That’s because a story gives our hearts and minds something to hold on to. Stories make ideas sticky. But the thing is, the story has to be in your work for the right reasons.
☐ Anecdotes are engaging and relevant.
Like flashbacks in narrative nonfiction, anecdotes used to illuminate informational nonfiction must be engaging. That is, they should have entertainment value as well as informational value. We want interesting stories about fascinating people.
Such stories should also be relevant to the point and not just thrown in because someone told you to “start with a story.” Continue reading
The use of flashbacks in narrative nonfiction is similar to flashbacks in fiction.
☐ Flashbacks are used only when necessary and are engaging.
A flashback is a dramatized scene that looks back to a time before the story started. Now here’s the thing — if your readers need to know the information in the flashback, why don’t you just put it in chronological order?
There are plenty of reasons not to. You may want to start at a crisis point, backtrack to how you got there, then pick up the story again and move forward. Continue reading
The nonfiction equivalent to plot and structure is Presentation and Flow. The events of your story, or the information in prescriptive nonfiction, should be like links in a chain—connected and in the right order.
If you haven’t already, get the Elements of Nonfiction Editing Checklist
As much as possible, present events in the order in which they happened. I once had a client* who wrote a scene about his kids before he had introduced his wife. He had written in the order in which things occurred to him rather than the order in which they happened. Continue reading
A two-sided hazard of narrative nonfiction—whether you’re writing about your own life or someone else’s—is of making the good guys impossibly perfect and the bad guys impossibly evil. Novelists face the same problem, of course, but in nonfiction the problem is magnified because you’re writing about real human beings. Creating a one-dimensional fictional character is a common error, but it’s not a tragedy.
Reducing the life of a person who actually lived to one dimension is a tragedy. Continue reading